Basalt fiber

Basalt

Basalt is a common volcanic rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava. The percentage content of basalt rock is dependent of deposit location and include: SiO2 – 52.8%, Al2O3 – 17.5% Fe2O3 – 10.3%, MgO – 4.63%, CaO – 8.59%, Na2O – 3.34%, K2O – 1.46%, TiO2 – 1.38%, P2O5 – 0.28%, MnO – 0.16%, Cr2O3 – 0.06%; whereby the quartz content can come to 20% .

Basalt fiber

The basalt fiber are made in a melting process by temperature 1450°C in a melting furnace. Molten basalt flows from furnace through feeder channel through the platinum-rhodium bushing with 200 to 1000 holes. The fibers are drawn from the melt under hydrostatic pressure. The melt is cooled by cooler and get harden to fibers. Afterwards a sizing is applied to the surface of the fibers by sizing applicator. Sizing improve the fiber elasticity and adhesion with a composites matrix like a resin or concrete. We are providing roving with different monofilament diameter such as 10, 13, 17 µm and linear density 90-600 tex by Single-End-Roving and 270-4800 tex by assembled Roving.

Properties of basalt fibers

  • High tensile strength
  • High E-Modulus
  • High abrasion strength
  • High temperature resistance
  • High resistance to aggressive media
  • Excellent drapability
  • Very good treatability
  • Excellent thermal and sound insulation
  • Easy to process
  • Excellent ecological tolerance as natural product
  • Not harmful
  • Easy and reasonable recycling

Mechanical properties

Monofilament diameter, µm 10 13 17
Tensile test according ASTM D-3822

(dry fiber), tensile strength, mN/tex

≥ 700 ≥ 650 ≥ 600
Tensile test according ASTM D-2343

(in epoxy impregnated strand), tensile strength, MPa

3200 3100 2900
Tensile test according ASTM D-2343

(in epoxy impregnated strand), tensile modulus, GPa

90-94 88-92 86-90
Tensile test according ASTM D-2101

(Basalt monofilament), tensile strength, MPa

4300 4200 4000
Tensile test according ASTM D-2101

(Basalt monofilament), tensile modulus, GPa

95 93 92

Tensile strength change by the heating

Temperature Tensile strength change
+20°C 100%
+200°C 95%
+400°C 80%

Thermal operating range

Melting range 1460-1500 °C
Crystallization temperature 1250 °C
Sintering temperature 1050 °C
Thermal conductivity, W/(m • K) 0,031-0,038
Thermal load duration Temperature range
Permanent From -260 up to +400 °C
(1) Stage 1: amorphous fiber with sizing on the fiber surface Up to +200 °C
(2) Stage 2: burning of sizing (10-15 minutes), amorphous fiber From +200 up to +350 °C
(3) Stage 3: amorphous fiber without sizing on the fiber surface Von +350 bis zu +400°C
Short term (few minutes) From +400 up to +850 °C
(4) Stage 4: transition of FeO into Fe2O3 and beginning of crystallization of Fe2O3. The fiber is becoming less and less amorphous and more and more brittle From +400 up to +850 °C
Short term (few seconds) From +850 up to +1250 °C
(5) Stage 5: all the Fe2O3 is in crystal form, the material is extremely brittle, its mechanical properties are extremely poor but without stress and vibration it continues working as thermo insulation pretty good From +850 up to +1050 °C
(6) Stage 6: sintering temperature From +1050 up to +1250 °C

Chemical stability

CemFIL Basalt E-Glas
Weightlessness in 3-hour boiling in water 0,2%
Weightlessness in 3-hour boiling in saturated cement solution (pH 12,9) 0,15% 0,35% 4,5%
Weightlessness in 3-hour boiling in 2N solution HCl (hydrochloric acid) 2-7% 38,5%
Weightlessness in 3-hour boiling in 2N solution NaOH (sodium hydroxide) 6%
Weightlessness in 30 minutes and in 180 minutes in H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) 2% and 6% B14% and 22%

Comparison of mechanical properties

Properties Continuous Basalt E-Glass S-Glass Carbon Aramid
Density (g/cm³) 2.6- 2.8 2.5 – 2.6 2.5 1.8 1.5
Tensile Strength (MPa) 4100 – 4840 3100 – 3800 4020 – 4650 3500 – 6000 2900 – 3400
Elastic Modulus (GPa) 93.1 – 110 72.5 – 75.5 83 – 86 230 – 600 70 – 140
Elongation at break 3.1 4.7 5.3 1.5 – 2.0 2.8 – 3.6
Maximum Service Temperature °C 600 380 300 500 250

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Contact

INCOTELOGY GmbH
Phone: +49 2234 9882370
Fax: +49 2234 9882372